Database Management Basics

Database management is the process to manage information that is essential to the company’s business operations. It includes data storage, distributing it to users and application programs making changes as needed and monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from becoming damaged due to unexpected failure. It is one component of a company’s informational infrastructure which aids in decision making and growth for the business as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS), which allowed large amounts data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of purposes. From calculating inventory, to aiding complex financial accounting functions as well as human resource functions.

A database consists of a set of tables that arrange data in accordance with a specific schema, such as one-to many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and permits cross-references among tables. Each table has a set of fields, called attributes, that represent facts about the entities that comprise the data. The most widely used type of database that is currently in use is a relational model, designed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. The design is based on normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It also makes it easier to update data since it eliminates the need to modify many sections of the database.

Most DBMSs support multiple database types by providing different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level focuses on costs, scalability, and other operational issues including the design of the database’s physical storage The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It may include a mix of various external views (based on the different data models) and may include virtual tables that are constructed from data that is generic to enhance performance.

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